Established in 1580, Plaza de Mayo (May Square) is Buenos Aires' first public square and the historic site of ceremonies, rallies, political uprisings and protests. The name of the square is derived from the uprising against Spanish colonial rule on May 25, 1810 and the journey toward independence. The plaza remains the symbolic and physical centre of Argentina's turbulent and colourful history.
The original square was cleaved down the middle by a gallery that has since made way for the central monument, the Pirámide de Mayo, now housed within a newer structure built in 1911. Notable events that have occurred within the Plaza de Mayo include crowds cheering for ex-President Juan Perón and wife, Evita, anti-Perónist military planes bombing the crowds gathered in the square in 1955, riots in 2001, and celebrations for Argentina's bicentenary in 2010. A common sight every Thursday at 3:30pm for over 20 years is the Madres de Plaza de Mayo (Mothers of May Square) who march to demand justice for los desaparecidos, those who 'disappeared' between 1976 to 1983 during the military regime.
On the eastern side of Plaza de Mayo is the 19th-century Casa de Gobierno (Government House), which is know colloquially as the Casa Rosada (Pink House) due to its unusual and distinctive hue. The only building dating back to colonial times on Plaza de Mayo is the Museo Histórico Nacional del Cabildo y la Revolución de Mayo built in 1765. The modified building contains a small museum and hosts an artisan fair. Other major landmarks surrounding the square include the Hacienda Palace to the south, Metropolitan Cathedral of Buenos Aires to the north and to the west, Buenos Aires City Hall.
Within the picturesque square you'll find landscaped gardens, paved paths and ornamental lamp posts, which lend a romantic feel to the space at night. To visit Plaza de Mayo, metro line A travels to Plaza de Mayo station.